Stomach Cancer

Stomach cancer or gastric cancer is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach. Early symptoms may include heartburn, upper abdominal pain, nausea and loss of appetite.

Later signs and symptoms may include weight loss, yellow skin, vomiting, difficulty swallowing, and blood in the stool among others.

The cancer may spread from the Stomach Cancer doctor In noida to other parts of the body, particularly the liver, lungs, bones, the lining of the abdomen and lymph nodes.

Stomach Cancer doctor In noida

Types of Stomach Cancer


The cells that form the tumor determine the type of stomach cancer. The type of cells in your stomach cancer helps determine your treatment options. Types of stomach cancer include:

1.Cancer that begins in the glandular cells (adenocarcinoma): The glandular cells that line the inside of the stomach secrete a protective layer of mucus to shield the lining of the stomach from the acidic digestive juices. Adenocarcinoma accounts for the great majority of all stomach cancers.

2.Cancer that begins in immune system cells (lymphoma): The walls of the stomach contain a small number of immune system cells that can develop cancer. Lymphoma in the stomach is rare.

3.Cancer that begins with hormone-producing cells (carcinoid cancer): Hormone-producing cells can develop carcinoid cancer. Carcinoid cancer in the stomach is rare.

4.Cancer that begins in nervous system tissues: A gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) begins in specific nervous system cells found in your stomach. GIST is a rare form of stomach cancer.

Stages of Stomach Cancer


Doctors assign the stage of the cancer by combining the T, N, and M classifications.

Stage 0

This is also called carcinoma in situ. The cancer is found only on the surface of the epithelium. The cancer has not grown in any other layers of the stomach and is considered an early cancer (TIS, N0, M0).

Stage IA

The cancer has grown into the inner layer of the wall of the stomach, but it has not spread to any lymph nodes or other organs (T1, N0, M0).

Stage IB

Stomach cancer is called stage IB in either of these two conditions:

The cancer has grown into the inner layers of the wall of the stomach and has spread to one to two lymph nodes, but not elsewhere (T1, N1, M0).

The cancer has grown into the outer muscular layers of the wall of the stomach, but the cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes or other organs (T2, N0, M0).

Stage IIA

Stomach cancer is called stage IIA for any one of these conditions:

The cancer has grown into the inner layer of the wall of the stomach and has spread to three to six lymph nodes, but not elsewhere (T1, N2, M0).

The cancer has grown into the outer muscular layers of the wall of the stomach and has spread to one to two lymph nodes, but not elsewhere (T2, N1, M0).

The cancer has grown through all of the layers of the muscle into the connective tissue outside the stomach but has not grown into the peritoneal lining or serosa. It has not spread to any lymph nodes or surrounding organs (T3, N0, M0).

Stage IIB

Stomach cancer is called stage IIB for any one of these conditions:

The cancer has grown into the inner layers of the wall of the stomach and has spread to seven or more lymph nodes but not elsewhere. (T1, N3, M0).

The cancer has invaded the outer muscular layers of the wall of the stomach and has spread to three to six lymph nodes, but not elsewhere (T2, N2, M0).

The cancer has grown through all of the layers of the muscle into the connective tissue outside the stomach but has not grown into the peritoneal lining or serosa and has spread to one to two lymph nodes but not elsewhere (T3, N1, M0).

The cancer has grown through all of the layers of the muscle into the connective tissue outside the stomach and has grown into the peritoneal lining or serosa, but it has not spread to any lymph nodes or surrounding organs (T4a, N0, M0).

Stage IIIA

Stomach cancer is called stage IIIA for any one of these conditions:

The cancer has grown into the outer muscular layers of the stomach wall and has spread to seven or more lymph nodes, but not to other organs (T2, N3, M0).

The cancer has grown through all of the layers of the muscle into the connective tissue outside the stomach but has not grown into the peritoneal lining or serosa. It has spread to three to six lymph nodes, but not to other organs (T3, N2, M0).

The cancer has grown through all of the layers of the muscle into the connective tissue outside the stomach and has grown into the peritoneal lining or serosa and has spread to one to two lymph nodes but not to other organs (T4a, N1, M0).

Stage IIIB

Stomach cancer is called stage IIIB for any of these conditions:

The cancer has grown through all of the layers of the muscle into the connective tissue outside the stomach but has not grown into the peritoneal lining or serosa. It has spread to seven or more lymph nodes, but has not invaded any surrounding organs (T3, N3, M0).

The cancer has grown through all of the layers of the muscle into the connective tissue outside the stomach and has grown into the peritoneal lining or serosa and has spread to three to six lymph nodes but has not spread elsewhere (T4a, N2, M0).

The cancer has grown through all of the layers of the muscle into the connective tissue outside the stomach and has grown into nearby organs or structures. It may or may not have spread to one to two lymph nodes, but not to distant parts of the body (T4b, N0 or N1, M0).

Stage IV

Stage IV stomach cancer describes a cancer of any size that has spread to distant parts of the body in addition to the area around the stomach (any T, any N, M1).

Prevention of Stomach Cancer

All patients who come to Dr. Manish Kumar Singhalf or oncology care start their treatment only after they have been discussed in the Tumor Board and given a Tumor Board Number. In the tumor board all our specialists (Surgical Oncologists, Gastroenterologists, Medical Oncologists, Radiation Oncologists, Oncopathologists and Radiologists) discuss the findings, and chart out the optimal plan of treatment for each patient based on established National and International Guidelines and Protocols. This treatment plan takes into account the overall health of the patient, the extent (stage) of the cancer and their preferences. The primary treatments for gastric cancer (stomach cancer) include Surgery, Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy.

Oncologists at Dr. Manish Kumar Singhal see lots of patients who have stomach cancer each year. That experience helps them to guide patients toward the most appropriate treatment approach. We take great care to ensure patients understand the benefits and risks associated with each treatment option.

Dr. Manish Kumar Singhal offers all treatment options for stomach cancer, including Surgery, Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy

Surgery

Surgery offered for stomach cancer consists of some sort of resection, which involves removal of a part or whole of stomach in block with surrounding tissues and lymph nodes, depending upon the extent of the disease. Gastrectomy is a technically demanding procedure and sometimes may require combined resection of surrounding organs like part of the liver, pancreas, colon and spleen with complex reconstruction to restore the continuity of the digestive tract. Our surgical oncologists offer D2 gastrectomy, which is a gold standard in Japan.

Radiation Therapy

Doctors may recommend radiation therapy in combination with chemotherapy or surgery. Radiation oncologists at Dr. Manish Kumar Singhal have extensive experience in the treatment of gastric cancer, and they use specialized techniques to limit the radiation dose to surrounding healthy tissue.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells. It may be given before surgery, after surgery (to treat cancer that may remain), or during and following radiation. Chemotherapy may be the main treatment when the tumor cannot be surgically removed because the cancer has spread.

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