Bone cancer is a cancer of the cells that make up the bones of the body. When cancer is found in bones, it has already started in another organ or another location in the body and has spread to the bones. This is known as metastatic cancer and is named for the site at which the original cancer started (for example, metastatic colon cancer) and is not referred to medically as bone cancer doctor In noida. It is much more common than true, or primary, bone cancer, where the bone cells themselves become malignant. Primary and metastatic bone cancers are often treated differently and may have a different prognosis.
There are other cancers that may begin in the bone even though they are not considered to be true bone cancers. Lymphoma is a cancer of the cells involved in the immune response. Lymphoma usually begins in the lymph nodes, but it sometimes begins in the bone marrow. Multiple myeloma is another cancer of the immune cells that typically begins in the bone marrow. These tumors are not considered to be primary bone cancers because they do not arise from bone cells.
Bone Cancer doctor In Noida
Types of Bone Cancer
1.Primary : A primary bone cancer is one that starts in the bones. The cancer cells are bone cells that have become cancerous. All the information in this section is about primary bone cancer.
2.Secondary : A secondary cancer in the bones has spread from somewhere else in the body. This is also called metastatic cancer. The cancer cells are like the cells of the original tumour. So if you have had breast cancer and it spreads to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones will actually be breast cancer cells.
Osteosarcoma is the most common type of primary bone cancer found in teenagers and young adults. But you can get it at any age. Osteosarcomas can grow anywhere in the skeleton. The most common sites are the
- Lower thigh (femur)
- Shin bone (tibia)
- Upper arm (humerus)
This type of primary bone cancer is most often found in adults over 40 years old. It is relatively rare.
Chrondrosarcoma is a cancer of cartilage cells. Cartilage is the shiny, smooth substance that normally covers the ends of bones in the joints. It provides support for the joint and allows bones to move smoothly over one another.
Chondrosarcoma can grow inside a bone or on the bone surface. The cancer makes cartilage. So you may have islands of cartilage inside the bone or on the bone surface, in an area where it wouldn’t normally grow.
This bone tumour is usually slow growing. The most common sites for chondrosarcoma are the
- Lower thigh (femur)
- Shin bone (tibia)
- Upper arm (humerus)
This type of bone cancer is named after the surgeon who first described it. It is most common in teenagers.
Ewing’s sarcoma usually starts in the pelvis (hips), thigh (femur) or shin (tibia) bones. But you can also get a Ewing’s tumour in the soft tissues of the body. Soft connective tissue tumours are called soft tissue sarcomas.
If you have a soft tissue Ewing’s tumour, you will have the type of treatment described in this section. This is because these tumours respond to the same treatment as Ewing’s bone tumours.
Spindle cell sarcoma
Spindle cell sarcomas are very similar to osteosarcomas but don’t produce the bony substance called osteoid, which osteosarcomas do. They behave in a similar way to osteosarcoma and doctors treat them in a similar way. They are usually found in adults over 40. There are several types of spindle cell sarcoma including
- Undifferentiated sarcoma of bone
- Malignant fibrous histiocytoma
Undifferentiated sarcoma of bone means that the cells are not specialised. They are quite undeveloped (immature) and it isn’t possible to tell which type of normal bone cells they started from. If you have a spindle cell sarcoma with more well developed (specialised) cells, your doctor will call it a histiocytoma, fibrosarcoma or leiomyosarcoma, depending on the appearance of the cells under a microscope.
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is a very rare type of spindle cell sarcoma. It tends to be found in middle aged adults. The arms and legs are the most common sites.
Fibrosarcoma is also very rare and most often found in middle aged adults. The most common site for fibrosarcoma is the thigh bone (femur).
Leiomyosarcoma of bone is extremely rare and very little is known about it.
Chordomas are a very rare, slow growing type of bone cancer. They are most common in people between 40 and 60 years of age. They are found more often in women than men.
Chordomas develop from the notochord (pronounced no-tow-cord). The notochord forms the early spinal tissue in a baby developing in the womb. After about 6 months, this tissue is replaced by bone. But sometimes small areas of notochord may remain.
About 2 out of 5 chordomas (35 to 40%) grow in the skull or the bones in the middle of the face. The rest develop in the bones of the spine (the vertebrae). About half of these are in the lower part of the spine.
Chordomas do not usually spread. But if they do, the most common places are the lungs, nearby lymph nodes, the liver, the bones and the skin.
Stages of Bone Cancer
Tests to determine the extent (stage) of the bone cancer
Once diagnoses of bone cancer is made, oncologists determine the extent of spread (stage) of the cancer. Treatment options are guided by the cancer’s stage.
Stages of bone cancer include:
- Stage I-Bone cancer is limited to the bone and hasn’t spread to other areas of the body. After biopsy testing, cancer at this stage is considered low grade and is not considered aggressive.
- Stage II– Bone cancer is limited to the bone and hasn’t spread to other areas of the body. Biopsy testing usually reveals that the bone cancer is high grade and is considered aggressive.
- Stage III– Bone cancer occurs in two or more places on the same bone.
- Stage IV– Bone cancer indicates that cancer has spread beyond the bone to other areas of the body, such as the brain, liver or lungs.
Prevention of Bone Cancer
The treatment options for bone cancer are based on the type of cancer, the stage of the cancer, overall health of the patient and their preferences. Bone cancer treatment typically involves surgery, chemotherapy, radiation or a combination of treatments.
The goal of surgery is to remove the entire bone cancer. To accomplish this, surgical oncologists remove the tumor along with a margin of surrounding healthy tissues that surrounds it. Types of surgery used to treat bone cancer include:
- Surgery to remove the cancer, but spare the limb-If a bone cancer can be separated from nerves and other tissue, the surgical oncologist is able to remove the bone cancer and spare the limb. Since some of the bone is removed with the cancer, the surgeon replaces the lost bone with some bone from another part of the body or with a special metal prosthesis. Intense rehabilitative therapy may be necessary after limb-sparing surgery to make the affected arm or leg to become fully functional.
- Surgery to remove a limb-Bone cancers that are large or located in a complicated point on the bone require surgery to remove all or part of a limb (amputation). As other treatments have been developed, this procedure is becoming less common. After surgery an artificial limb is fitted and training is given to do everyday tasks using new limb.
- Surgery for cancer that doesn’t affect the limbs– If bone cancer occurs in bones other than those of the arms and legs, surgeons may remove the bone and some surrounding tissue, such as in cancer that affects a rib, or may remove the cancer while preserving as much of the bone as possible, such as in cancer that affects the spine. Bone removed during surgery can be replaced with a piece of bone from another area of the body or with a special metal prosthesis.
Radiation therapy uses high-powered beams of energy, to kill cancer cells. During radiation therapy, patients lie on a table while a linear accelerator moves around you and aims the energy beams at precise points on the body. At Dr. Manish Kumar Singhal
Hospital, we have the most advanced VMAT Radiation Technology to treat cancer patient.
Preoperative radiation therapy may be used to shrink a bone cancer to increase the likelihood that the surgical oncologist can remove the entire cancer with surgery. In this situation, radiation therapy may be combined with chemotherapy.
Radiation therapy may also be used in people with bone cancer that can’t be removed with surgery. It may also be used after surgery to kill any cancer cells that may be left behind. For people with advanced bone cancer, radiation therapy may help control signs and symptoms, such as pain.
Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy is most often given through a vein (intravenously). The chemotherapy medications travel throughout the body.
Chemotherapy is often used before surgery, usually in combination with radiation therapy, to shrink a bone cancer to a more manageable size that allows the surgical oncologist to use a limb-sparing surgery. Chemotherapy may also be used in people with bone cancer that has spread beyond the bone to other parts of the body.