Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer, also known as carcinoma of the lung or pulmonary carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

If left untreated, this growth can spread beyond the lung by process of metastasis into nearby tissue or other parts of the body. Most cancers that start in the lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas that derive from epithelial cells.

The main primary types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The most common symptoms are coughing (including coughing up blood), weight loss, shortness of breath, and chest pains.

treatment for lung cancer in noida

Types of Lung Cancer


Lung cancers are broadly classified into two types: small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). SCLC comprises about 20% of lung cancers and are the most aggressive and rapidly growing of all lung cancers. NSCLC is the most common lung cancers, accounting for about 80% of all lung cancers. NSCLC can be divided into three main types that are named based upon the type of cells found in the tumor: Adenocarcinomas, Squamous cell carcinomas, large cell carcinomas and mixtures of different types of NSCLC are also seen.

Stages of Lung Cancer


There are two major types of lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC).

Stages of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Stage I:The cancer is located only in the lungs and has not spread to any lymph nodes.
Stage II:The cancer is in the lung and nearby lymph nodes.
Stage III:Cancer is found in the lung and in the lymph nodes in the middle of the chest, also described as locally advanced disease. Stage III has two sub-types:

  1. If the cancer has spread only to lymph nodes on the same side of the chest where the cancer started, it is called stage IIIA.
  2. If the cancer has spread only to lymph nodes on the same side of the chest where the cancer started, it is called stage IIIA.

Stage IV:This is the most advanced stage of lung cancer, and is also described as advanced disease. This is when the cancer has spread to both lungs, to fluid in the area around the lungs, or to another part of the body, such as the liver or other organs.

Small Cell Lung Cancer

Small cell lung cancer accounts for the remaining 15 percent of lung cancers in the United States. Small cell lung cancer results from smoking even more so than non-small cell lung cancer, and grow more rapidly and spread to other parts of the body earlier than non-small cell lung cancer. It is also more responsive to chemotherapy.

Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

Limited stage:In this stage, cancer is found on one side of the chest, involving just one part of the lung and nearby lymph nodes.

Extensive stage:In this stage, cancer has spread to other regions of the chest or other parts of the body.

Prevention of Lung Cancer

Tumor Board Evaluation

All patients who come to oncology care start their treatment only after they have been discussed in the Tumor Board and given a Tumor Board Number. In the tumor board, all our specialists (Surgical Oncologists, Medical Oncologists, Radiation Oncologists, Oncopathologist and Radiologists) discuss the findings, and chart out the optimal plan of treatment for each patient, based on established National and International Guidelines and Protocols. This treatment plan takes into account the overall health of the patient, the extent (stage) of the cancer and their preferences. The primary treatments for Lung Cancer include surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

Oncologists at Dr. Manish Kumar Singhal see hundreds of patients who have Lung Cancer each year. That experience helps them to guide patients toward the most appropriate treatment approach. We take great care to ensure patients understand the Benefits And Risks Associated With Each Treatment Option.

Treatment

Treatment for lung cancer in noida can involve surgical removal of the cancer, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, as well as combinations of these treatments. The decision about which treatments will be appropriate for a given individual must take into account the location and extent of the tumor as well as the overall health status of the patient.

As with other cancers, therapy may be prescribed that is intended to be curative (removal or eradication of a cancer) or palliative (measures that are unable to cure a cancer but can reduce pain and suffering). More than one type of therapy may be prescribed.

Surgery

Surgical removal of the tumor is generally performed for limited-stage (stage I or sometimes stage II) NSCLC and is the treatment of choice for cancer that has not spread beyond the lung. About 10%-35% of lung cancers can be removed surgically, but removal does not always result in a cure, since the tumors may already have spread and can recur at a later time.

The surgical procedure chosen depends upon the size and location of the tumor. Surgeons must open the chest wall and may perform a wedge resection of the lung (removal of a portion of one lobe), a lobectomy (removal of one lobe), or a pneumonectomy (removal of an entire lung). Sometimes lymph nodes in the region of the lungs also are removed (lymphadenectomy). Surgery for lung cancer is a major surgical procedure that requires general anesthesia, hospitalization, and follow-up care for weeks to months.

Radiation

Radiation therapy may be employed as a treatment for both NSCLC and SCLC. Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation to kill dividing cancer cells. Radiation therapy may be given as curative therapy, palliative therapy (using lower doses of radiation than with curative therapy), or as adjuvant therapy in combination with surgery or chemotherapy.

Radiation therapy generally only shrinks a tumor or limits its growth when given as a sole therapy, yet in 10%-15% of people it leads to long-term remission and palliation of the cancer. Combining radiation therapy with chemotherapy can further prolong survival when chemotherapy is administered. External radiation therapy can generally be carried out on an outpatient basis, while internal radiation therapy requires a brief hospitalization.

Chemotherapy

Both NSCLC and SCLC may be treated with chemotherapy. Chemotherapy refers to the administration of drugs that stop the growth of cancer cells by killing them or preventing them from dividing. Chemotherapy may be given alone, as an adjuvant to surgical therapy, or in combination with radiotherapy. While a number of chemotherapeutic drugs have been developed, the class of drugs known as the platinum-based drugs have been the most effective in treatment of lung cancers.

Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for most SCLC, since these tumors are generally widespread in the body when they are diagnosed. Chemotherapy alone is not particularly effective in treating NSCLC, but when NSCLC has metastasized; it can prolong survival in many cases.

Targeted Therapy

Targeted therapy drugs more specifically target cancer cells, resulting in less damage to normal cells than general chemotherapeutic agents. Erlotinib and gefitinib target a protein called the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that is important in promoting the division of cells. This protein is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of some types of cancer cells, including many cases of non-small cell lung cancer.

Other attempts at targeted therapy include drugs known as antiangiogenesis drugs, which block the development of new blood vessels within a cancer. Without adequate blood vessels to supply oxygen-carrying blood, the cancer cells will die. The antiangiogenic drug bevacizumab (Avastin) has also been found to prolong survival in advanced lung cancer when it is added to the standard chemotherapy regimen.

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